This paper (page18,19)also indirectly confirms below quoted text:
“...Usually the Himalayan black bear is a powerful foe for any tiger and they avoid each other, but here the bear seems to be a juvenile at 2-3 years and hence did not have the muscle and fighting abilities it gets by the time it reaches its adult age of 5 years,” said Dr Sonam Wangyel, the chief forestry officer and wildlife biologist. He said that it was likely that the two animals met accidentally..." www.bhutan-italy.com/main/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=168&Itemid=69 "...Himalayan (or Asiatic black) bear (which we observed visually), like the brown bear that has already been mentioned, clearly did not fear the presence of tigers. He walked along the tiger's tracks and rested in the same wild boar den as did the tiger..." tigers.ru/books/ecolog/ch12_en.html
Looked at the elastic strain energy of tendons, which is how effectively they work as springs allowing the animals to move efficiently and lightly. The article's explanation of the results:
Anyway, the results in log graph form (grizzly is easy to find-the only animal between 300 and 400 kg-the lion and others harder):
The grizzly had a fairly low amount of muscle mass in two of those muscles, although talking about the elastic strain energy: the grizzly's tendons had the elastic strain energy expected of an animal around or below 100 kg (despite weighing over 300). The importance of the tendon strain energy to efficient running was described extensively in the text quoted above.
Source: "Allometryof muscle, tendon, and elastic energy storage capacity in mammals" by Colleen Pollock and Robert Shadwick.
A few comments: 1) Pitbulls have under half the tendon elastic strain energy as greyhounds-in "Functional Tradeoffs in the limb muscles of dogs selected for running vs fighting" by B. M. Pasi & D. R. Carrier it was theorized that a long with increasing running efficiency and reducing mass of distal limb segments (less reliance on distal limb muscles), increased tendon elasticity compromises fighting ability due to less efficient energy transfer towards pushing another animal (energy stretching the tendons instead). 2) Unlike the pitbull -greyhound comparison, the grizzly, along with reduced tendon strain energy, also had relatively small gastrocnemius and deep digital flexors (two muscles whose tendons serve as effective springs in the other animals). We would need more information to draw conclusions, unless I am missing something. The grizzly is obviously very different in arrangement of the muscles and skeleton when compared with the other animals (being plantigrade rather than digigrade or unguligrade). As an ambulatory plantigrade species the sort of arrangements and muscles (perhaps not included?) most efficient for locomotion differ. Perhaps having very short distal limb segments they simply have the mechanical advantage to not need similar muscle cross section areas, but then that doesn't explain why the similar muscle mass of the digital extensors or plantaris (plantaris being another that works as springs in other animals). Would be great to see more info on this.
EDIT: Images are showing up on another forum, and when I paste the links in another tab, yet not here for me. I just switched to photobucket (away from imageshack)-anyone know what the problem is? Might have to switch back.
It's a hard nut to crack . BTW I have some new info about relationship between asiatic black bears and tigers in Russian Far East.
Hi Ursus, sorry I was MIA for much of the week. Awhile back I switched to photobucket mainly because some of our international members could not see images hosted by Imageshack (I also have an Imageshack account) but were OK with photobucket. A quick trick I learned about photobucket is to make the file name shorter for example:
Later on, we can clean up this thread and move some of these posts in the Technical Support thread.
Warsaw, Ursus, everyone, this thread is designed to be in essence a general overview of grizzly bear anatomy (a lot of bear forum threads are created with this purpose - they are basically overview appetizers). The structural design of the forum is such that it can accommodate a wide range of topics including where and when needed numerous anatomy/bio-engineering ones/threads so if anyone thinks creating a separate thread(s) is necessary then by all means go for it (this is a big part of the forum design plan: to accommodate). If people want, you can break the threads down by body region, muscles, skeletal, cranial, nervous system, etc.
Description of pathological conditions in the skeleton of an adult male brown bear Ursus arctos from the Cantabrian range of mountains (Reserva Nacional de Caza de Riaño, León) PINTO, A. C.1 & ETXEBARRÍA, F.2 Bears are generally big-sized animals and have few natural enemies. A wound bear therefore has good chances of recovering from trauma or disease without being meanwhile attacked. The lack of natural enemies also implies that many of these animals can reach advanced ages, favouring the quantitative as well as qualitative increase in pathological conditions. The literature dealing with skeletal diseases in the extinct cave bears is very rich. This is due to the very many fossils of this species recovered in caves throughout Europe, many of them displaying spectacular pathological conditions. On the other hand, the literature dealing with skeletal conditions on present day brown bears is much more scarce, as these animals do not use limestone caves as intensively as cave bears did, and therefore their remains are, more frequently than not, lost. When thinking on the ecological implications of cave bear skeletal conditions, we can only use as comparation our present knowledge of its extant counterpart, the brown bear or other temperate modern bears, in order to make inferences. It is therefore important to create a log of information on present day bear pathologies. In this paper we describe in detail the pathological conditions found in the skeleton of a present-day brown bear Ursus arctos from the Cantabrian range of mountains in N. Spain. This specimen is kept in the Centro de Recuperación de Animales Silvestres (Valladolid), and was found dead at the Reserva Nacional de Caza de Riaño (León). It has a very great number of relevant pathological conditions, some of traumatic origin, some of infectious origin, throughout the skeleton, chiefly affecting the functioning of the vertebral spine, pelvis and limb elements as described. DESCRIPTION OF THE PATHOLOGIES This is the complete skeleton of a present day brown bear, an adult male with a cementum age of 20±2 years (J. Seijas, pers. comm), and therefore a very old bear by modern Cantabrian Mountains standards. The skeletal remains of this specimen show grave lesions, that have affected to its locomotion and general quality of life. Below we describe all the alterations observed in each one of the skeletal elements. Almost all of them suffer from anomalous conditions, in greater or smaller degree. Lost post-mortem: Right M2, left M3, right P1 and right and left I1. • Lost intra-vitam: Left I2. Advanced alveolar resorption. • Alveolar resorption affecting the external bone wall of right M3 and left M2 • The enamel of the crown of the cheek teeth is completely worn, and secondary dentine protects the pulp cavity Mandible
• Caries: Affecting distally the right M2 and M3, and also to the left M2 • Intra-vitam breakage of the canine teeth, probably in events related with sexual competition. The stumps appear very rounded. The pulp cavity is exposed. • The temporo-mandibular joint shows eburneation. Maxilar • Post-mortem loss of right P3, left P1 and left I1. • Intra-vitam loss: Right I1. The alveolus has been resorbed and there is a fistulae discharging towards the nasal bone between I1 and I2. • Resorption of the external wall of the alveoli affecting right M2. • Right M2: loss of oclusal enamel and caries • Agenesia right P1 • Fistulae at the root of right M1, discharges towards bucal • Right canine has an intra-vitam breakage of the cusp and resorption of the external wall of the alveolus as well as some signs of periodontal pathology. • There are also some lesions with bone resorption in the palate. • The enamel in all molars has been entirely worn down exposing the pulp cavity, which appears protected by secondary dentine. Cervical vertebrae Around the articular surface of the atlas there is a complete circle of osteophytes. The axis is in a comparatively good condition. The next five cervical vertebrae also show osteophytes and exostoses along the antero-distal edge Dorsal vertebrae These vertebrae (14) are affected in varying degrees by eburneation of the articular surfaces, rings of osteophytes along the edges and exostoses. These exostoses acquire great size from the 6th vertebra downwards, affecting the anterior surface. Vertebrae 7t h, 8t h and 9t h are fused through great exostoses and calcifications in its anterior area. The body of vertebra 9 is greatly disfigured. The anterior exostoses and articular osteophytes appear through till the last vertebra, very modified also with de-calcification and anomalous disorganised new bone production. It appears also fused to the first lumbar vertebra. Lumbar vertebrae The first lumbar vertebra appears almost entirely fused with the last dorsal vertebra. Exostoses and disorganised bone formation affect the 1st and the 2nd lumbar vertebrae. The three last ones have also exostoses, although of smaller size. Tail vertebrae The three first ones show abundant great sized exostoses (21x12x4 mm.). Las three last ones do not show lesions. Scapula The right scapula shows an osteochondroma, eburneation that exposes the spongy bone tissue and osteophytes in the articular surfaces. It also has an intra-vitam rip on the blade, that appears healed without infectious processes and without production of new bone. Humerus The right humerus has an eburneation in the inner proximal articular surface. It shows also a great circular exostose (11 mm. diameter) in the middle of the articular surface and circle of osteophytes along its inner edge. Distally the humerus shows great wear of the joint and pseudoarticular surfaces produced by the intense pathologies affecting radius and ulna, explained below. The left humerus shows in the proximal articulation eburneation and osteophytes. Probably to compensate the great lesions in the right side, the muscular insertion appears very developed. The distal articulation has a circle of osteophytes, not so developed. The diaphysis of the left humerus is notoriously wider and stronger than that of the right arm. As we will see, the left arm is the only healthy limb this animal had. Radius and ulnae The right radius and ulnae appear crushed or with multiple fractures affecting both bones. These are old fractures with formation of new bone tissue, that fuses both bones. They appear very distorted and their functionality must have been very limited. This lesion affects the totality of both bones and plays also a role in the deformations suffered by the proximal and distal joints and by adjacent bones The edges of the distal articulation in the left radius show an incipient circle of osteophytes. The left ulna shows osteophytes surrounding the distal articulation. Carpal and metacarpal bones The carpal bones of the right hand show an intense wear and eburneation of the articular surfaces, leading to the general loss of bone mass and to the formation of rows of osteophytes. The metacarpal bones have similar pathologies. The 1st has distally a healed fracture, a fistulae and osteophytes. The second one seems to have also a healed fracture, as well as anomalous bone production on the diaphysis and exostoses, that extend to the remaining metacarpal bones. The 4th metacarpal has exostoses in proximal. The carpal bones of the left arm are bigger and have great osteophytes, that affect also the metacarpal bones. The 1st left metacarpal shows crushing, exostoses, osteophytes around articular surfaces and pseudo-arthrosis in mid diaphysis. The remaining metacarpal bones are affected by osteophytes in varying degrees at the joints and exostoses at the diaphysis.. Falanges The articular surfaces in the right hand falanges are circled by osteophytes, have exostoses in the diaphysis, eburneations and arthritic deformations. The 3rd falange of the 2nd finger is distally anomalous. The 3rd finger has two falanges fused in an anomalous position. The 5th finger has an amputation in the first falange, with new bone growth over the stump. The fingers of the left hand have similar alterations. Innominate Luxation of the left innominate, that has then formed a secondary sub-articulation with great proliferation of newly formed bone that grows disorganised suggesting an infectious. The right side appears relatively healthy, and the innominate keeps its general symmetry. Femur The right femur head has eburneation with wear discovering spongy bone tissue. Distally, osteophytes in the articulation with the tibia. The diaphysis show in posterior a great development of lobular exostoses, probably result of the ossification of the muscle insertions. Tibia and fibulae show amputation of the distal third. The left femur shows bone degeneration and resorption and loss of bone mass and shape at the femur head, possibly due to an infectious process associated to the great lesions in the innominate, descried above as luxation. Dorsally the diaphysis shows new bone in formation. Rotulae Both rotulae have osteophytes around the articular surfaces. Tibiae and fibulae The right tibia shows amputation of the distal third, with bone formation as lobular exostoses in the stump area. It has also exostoses in the diaphysis, in the muscle insertion area and in the articulation with the fibula. The right fibula shows also amputation of the distal third and anomalous bone production covering its whole surface. The left tibia has osteophytes around the proximal articulation, exostoses and alterations in the articulation with the fibula. The left fibula shows pseudo-arthrosis in the diaphysis. Distally, the head has a healed fracture with new bone formation forming lobes. Calcaneum, astragalus and tarsal (left) Both show eburneation and bone formation, osteophytes around articular surfaces and exostoses affect these bones. Metatarsal and falanges (left) The five are kept, and they show the following alterations: anomalous bone formation as lines of osteophytes, exostoses, decalcifications, eburneations, sindesmophytes, fistulas and infectious osteomielitis. The falanges have similar arthritic alterations in lesser degree. Ribs The 14 right ones have osteophytes and deformations in the proximal area. Eburneation, osteophytes, arthrosis and healed fractures are also present. As for the 14 left ribs, 4 have osteophytes and deformations in the articulation with the vertebrae. One has a healed fracture with anomalous bone formation. CLASSIFICATION OF THE PATHOLOGIES: TRAUMA VERSUS INFECTIONS The lesions descried have two origins: traumas or infections. Both can be related, when the soft tissues get an infection and transmit it to the bones through the blood. Traumatic pathologies These affect to the front right limb and to the bones in both legs. The right scapula has a breakage which is a direct trauma. Although there is no bone formation in this wound, this trauma could have affected to soft tissues around the scapula. An infectious process started then, and manifests itself in the vertebral spine. The right forearm shows alterations consistent with several traumatic lesions –crushing or multiple fractures- affecting the whole of radius and ulnae. Healed fractures can be seen that affect to both diaphysis, now fused and shortened. The right leg has a traumatic amputation of part of the tibia and fibula. This amputation does not appear to have been infected. Doubtless it has affected the ability to move of this animal, that in its movements had to rely strongly in the left leg and arm. The left leg shows a double fracture of the fibula. The proximal fracture never re-fused and there is a pseudoarthrosis. The bones of hands and legs have lesions which are consistent with infections, and are not an age triggered degeneration. As for the healed baculum fracture, this is a relatively frequent lesion produced in the heat of mating, and is of no consequence for bears. Therefore, and summarising, the main traumatic lesions suffered by this specimen were: a) Ripping of the right scapula with osteolysis b) Polytraumatic "catastrophic member" right forearm. c) Traumatic amputation of right tibia and fibula, with a well healed stump, affecting the ability to move. d) Double fracture of the left fibulae with pseudoarthrosis of the most proximal fracture. Infectious pathologies There is an infectious process affecting sectors of the vertebral spine, producing the fusion of some vertebrae and the almost complete disintegration of others. While the affected ones are very much altered, the ones out of the affected zones appear normal and healthy. The anomalies concentrate in two spots: there is a great decalcification and complete fusion of the 7th and the 8th through great exostoses that affect also the 9th with a great distortion of the body. The second area with important alterations goes from the 12th dorsal vertebrae to the 1st lumbar, that appears greatly distorted. The infectious process can be detected also in the left innominate and proximal femur. It could be therefore a septic arth- ritis, infectious process that has produced a proliferation of bone in the left innominate as well as a very important resorption in the femur head. This process has closed the major sciatic scooping. The symmetry between the right and left side of the pelvis, the lack of disorganisation or disharmony in the general structure, and the conservation of all the skeletal elements suggests that this is not a healed fracture of the innominate, with an open wound and an infectious component, but that the infection arrived here from a focus placed in other lesion in the body, through the blood stream. POSSIBLE AETIOLOGY OF THESE PATHOLOGIES The particular disposition of the infectious lesions reminds of the developmental mechanism of tuberculosis in human being. In men, Pott’s disease lodges itself in the 12th dorsal vertebrae, inserted in the hideosoas muscle, responsible for the upward movement of the thigh. The infection gets into this muscle, from which it spreads to its distal insertion point, in the lesser trochanter of the femur, entering from underneath the left innominate, and producing the infection and subsequent alterations in this bone. This similarity with how this disease develops in human beings suggested NEIBURGER (1984) his interpretation of the pathologies observed in a specimen of extinct fossil bear (Arctodus simus) . Other workers dismissed this diagnosis (R O T S C H I L D, 1988; R O T S C H I L D & TURNBULL, 1987), because of the lack of new bone formation in tuberculosis as opposed to the exuberant formation of new bone in Neiburger’s specimen. After finding treponema antigens in a sample from this bear, they proposed alternatively that it was treponematosis or syphilis what was causing these lesions. Neiburger however answered that the formation of new reactive bone is not incompatible with tuberculosis (N E I B U R G E R & TURNBULL, 1990). The fact that the scientific magazine Nature echoed twice this debate, is a reflect of the interest aroused by the origins of a disease as syphilis. In a subsequent paper, ROTHSCHILD et al. (1993) analyse bear collections of every genus in several museums, and they diagnose them with spondiloarthropaty. They consider first rheumatoid arthritis, but dismiss it because of the lack of reactive tissue; then consider tuberculosis and dismiss it because of the distinct appearance of the new bone. There is only then left arthritis, be it psoriasic or be reactive. The first has not been documented in bears, and therefore the only option left is reactive arthritis of sexual transmission. Although the argument till here is interesting, then the authors put this into relation with baculum fractures, which leaves us short of an entirely satisfactory answer to this problem. A biomedical analysis of a sample from the Riaño bear with this orientation will doubtless yield data relevant in this context. Antigen as well as DNA studies will allow to determine whether this specimen has been affected by any of these two diseases. In the meantime, the great abundance of grave traumatic lesions in the Riaño bear, that compromise the functional sta- bility of the animal, can suffice to explain the sequence of later lesions. For example, if this animal lost a leg to a poacher’s leash, as it does happen to bears in the area, will later be more liable to falling down, and generally be more liable to further damage.
THE EVOLUTION OF SKILLED FORELTMB MOVomeNTS IN CARNIVORANS
"The polar bear rarely uses its forepaws to manipulate food items. Instead, the polar bear simply holds food down as it is sheared and pulled apart by movements of the head and neck. The brown bear, on the other hand, almost always uses its forepaws to reach for, grasp and manipulate food items. Thus, despite similar brain sizes, their forepaw-use is considerably different and the residual of the contrast between these species is high." uleth.ca/dspace/bitstream/handle/10133/94/MQ49136.pdf?sequence=3