"Geographic overlap between wolves and brown (or grizzly) bears was once much more widespread than at present. In Yellowstone National Park (YNP), wolf and brown bear remains were found in the same cave deposits from 960 b.p. (Hadley 1989). Throughout most of their North American and Eurasian ranges, bear populations have experienced human-caused declines in recent years. Nevertheless, brown bears and wolves are still sympatric in significant portions of their former ranges, and interactions between them have been frequently observed. The most extensive observations come from Alaska and northern Canada."
Ballard, B. Warren, Carbyn, N. Ludwig, and Smith, W. Douglass. Wolf Interactions with Non prey. In: Wolves: behavior, ecology and conservation. Boitani L, editors. The University of Chicago Press; Chicago, IL: 2003. pp. 259–271.
Last Edit: Oct 16, 2011 12:00:04 GMT -9 by grrraaahhh
Post by grrraaahhh on Oct 11, 2011 14:24:59 GMT -9
Yellowstone National Park
Potential Interactions Between Bears & Wolves
With the reintroduction of gray wolves (Canis lupus) to Yellowstone National Park (YNP), much interest has been shown regarding the effects of a restored wolf population on both grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis) and black bears (Ursus americanus). Grizzly bears, black bears, and gray wolves have historically coexisted in much of the same range throughout a large portion of North America (Brown 1993).
Most interactions between the three species involve food sources and are usually characterized by mutual avoidance (Servheen and Knight 1990). The behavior of bears and wolves during interactions with each other are dependent upon many variables such as age, sex and reproductive status, prey availability, hunger and aggressiveness, numbers of animals, and previous experience in interacting with the other species (Servheen and Knight 1990). Most serious interactions between the species occur around wolf dens (Peterson et al. 1984). A wolf pack in Alaska was observed keeping a sow brown bear with yearlings at bay and eventually driving them away from the den site. The same pack was also observed driving a large, male brown bear away from the den site (Mech 1981). These bears were attracted by a recent wolf kill and ventured too close to the wolf den. From 1966 to 1974, Haber (1987) recorded 36 wolf-brown bear interactions in wolf pack territories in Denali National Park. Of the 36 interactions, 19 took place at ungulate carcasses in which wolves "won" 9 of the 19. Seventeen of the interactions were not at carcasses. In those cases, wolves harassed the bears or tried to take cubs, and the bears retreated. Steve Fritts (U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service) collected 70 unpublished accounts of bear-wolf interactions (Servheen and Knight 1990). The results showed no negative trends for wolves or bears due to these interactions. Few instances of direct mortality to either species have been documented. Instances of wolves killing bears and bears killing wolves have been reported, but such events are rare and considered the exception. According to Mech (1981), wolves sometimes kill bears, but likely only young, old, or otherwise weakened bears. Paquet and Carbyn (1986) reported three cases of wolves digging up and killing cubs of hibernating black bears in Riding Mountain National Park in Manitoba, Canada but thought it was not a common occurrence as over 2000 wolf scats in the area did not contain any evidence of bear remains. Bears will also occasionally kill wolves as Joslin (1966), and Pimlott et al. (1969) reported in Ontario, Canada. In both instances, black bears were responsible for the deaths of individual wolves. According to Joslin (1966), a black bear killed a female wolf protecting her pups at a den site. In general, most reported interactions are stand-offs with serious confrontations taking place in defense of food or young.
Wolves prey on ungulates year-round while bears feed on ungulates primarily as winter-killed carcasses and ungulate calves in spring, and weakened or injured male ungulates during the fall rut (Mattson et al. 1991). Grasses, sedges, forbs, berries, nuts, and roots comprise a large portion of a bear's diet throughout the year. After den emergence, both black bears and grizzly bears scavenge winter-killed carcasses. The availability of fewer early-winter ungulate carcasses to bears in the spring, due to wolf populations, would be little change from the present situation (Weaver 1986). Most early-winter ungulate carcasses in YNP are already consumed by coyotes before bears emerge from their dens (Mattson and Knight 1992). Weaver (1986) suggested bears may actually benefit from wolves inhabiting the park. Wolves prey on ungulates year-round, and because bears readily displace wolves from their kills, bears may find more ungulate carcasses during a larger portion of the year. This would provide bears a more reliable source of useful nutrients from July through October. If a bear wants a wolf-kill, the wolves will try to defend it, but they usually fail to chase the bear away (Mech 1981). Murie (1981) witnessed single, adult bears usurping carcasses from as many as 5 wolves. In the Soviet Far East, there is no competition between bears and wolves due to the high biomass of prey species. There are more than 250 wild ungulates/1 wolf in the Soviet Far East (Servheen and Knight 1990). Yellowstone National Park also has an extremely high biomass of ungulates. With a restored population of 100 wolves, the wolf to ungulate ratio would be approximately 225 ungulates/1 wolf in the winter and 378 ungulates/1 wolf in the summer (Singer 1990a). At these high ungulate densities, we would predict that, similar to the Soviet Far East, bears and wolves would coexist with few problems (D. Smith, Natl. Park Serv., Pers. Commun.).
So far in YNP, 5 of 14 wolf-kills ground-checked by biologists have had evidence of grizzly bear activity (D. Smith, Natl. Park Serv., Pers. Commun.). A grizzly bear was observed the day after a wolf-kill was made and possibly moved the wolves away as they were no longer in the area. In another instance, three wolves (alpha male, alpha female, and yearling male) were bedded down 50 meters from a fresh wolf-kill while a grizzly bear fed on the carcass. The wolves had been feeding on the carcass prior to the bear's arrival but relinquished the kill to the bear. Bears have undoubtedly visited, and possibly made use of, other wolf-kills in YNP. In an instance not involving a carcass, a sow and two-2-year-old grizzly bears were observed chasing, and being chased by, five wolves and gradually caused the wolf pack to vacate their day beds and move about 250 yards away; the sow was grazing nearby while the 2-year-olds interacted with the wolves (S. Consolo Murphy, Natl. Park Serv., Pers. Commun.). Neither the bears nor the wolves were injured during the interaction. Some observers thought it was actually a playful intreaction between the species. These examples of interactions between bears and wolves in YNP further support the theory that bears and wolves can coexist without adversely affecting each other (D. Smith, Natl. Park Serv., Pers. Commun.).
In summary, a restored gray wolf population in YNP would probably have little, if any, effect on the grizzly bear and black bear populations and vice-versa. With the exception of encounters near carcasses and wolf dens, most bear-wolf interactions could be classified as non-confrontational with no injuries occurring to either species involved. Observations to date suggest bears may actually be benefitting from the presence of wolves by usurping wolf-kills.
Brown, G. 1993. The Great Bear Almanac. Lyons & Burford, Publishers, New York, N.Y. 325pp.
Haber, G.C. 1987. Exploitation of wolf-moose systems - lessons from interior Alaska. The Alaska Wildlife Alliance, Anchorage. 141pp.
Joslin, P.W.B. 1966. Summer activities of two timber wolf (Canis lupus) packs in Algonquin Park. Unpubl. M.S. thesis. University of Toronto. 99pp.
Mattson, D.J., B.M. Blanchard, and R.R. Knight. 1991. Food habits of Yellowstone grizzly bears, 1977-87. Can. J. Zool. 69:1619-1629.
_____, and R.R. Knight. 1992. Spring bear use of ungulates in the Firehole River Drainage of Yellowstone National Park. Pages 5-93 - 5-120 in Wolves for Yellowstone? A report to the U.S. Congress, Volume IV Research and Analysis. Natl. Park Serv. Yellowstone Natl. Park, Wyo. 750pp.
Mech, L.D. 1981. The Wolf:The ecology and behavior of an endangered species. University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis, Minn. 384pp.
Murie, A. 1981. The Grizzlies of Mount McKinley. Science Monograph Series No. 14. Natl. Park Serv.
Paquet, P.C., and L.N. Carbyn. 1986. Wolves, Canis lupus, killing denning black bears, Ursus americanus, in the Riding Mountain National Park area. Can. Field Nat. 100:371-372.
Peterson, R. O., J. D. Woolington, and T. N. Bailey. 1984. Wolves of the Kenai Peninsula, Alaska. Wildl. Monogr. 88. 52pp.
Pimlott, D.H., J.A. Shannon, and G.B. Kolenosky. 1969. The ecology of the timber wolf in Algonquin Provincial Park. Ont. Dept. Lands and For. 92pp.
Servheen, C.W., and R.R. Knight. 1990. Possible effects of a restored wolf population on grizzly bears in the Yellowstone area. Pages 4-39 - 4-49 in Wolves for Yellowstone? A report to the U.S. Congress. Vol II, Research and Analysis. Natl. Park Serv. Yellowstone Natl. Park, Wyo.
Singer, F.J. 1990a. The ungulate prey base for wolves in Yellowstone National Park. Pages 2-1 - 2-37 in Wolves for Yellowstone? A report to the U.S. Congress. Vol. II, Research and Analysis, Natl. Park Serv. Yellowstone Natl. Park, Wyo.
Weaver, J. 1986. Of wolves and grizzly bears. Western Wildlands. 12(3):27-29.
INFORMATION PAPER No. BMO-9 Mark J. Biel Bear Management Office Biological Technician Yellowstone National Park June 1995
"The most common interactions between wolves and brown bears in YNP involved wolves and bears simply being in the same area (34%), followed by bears defending kills from wolves (19%; probably wolf kills usurped by bears) and bears usurping wolf kills (19%) (table 10.2). Interactions most often occurred at kill sites (66%)."
"Most encounters at most sites were won by bears "(40%), or the winner could not be determined (40%), even though wolves outnumbered bears during 76% of the interactions. Adult bears without cubs were involved in 88% of the encounters. Although wolves lost most disputed kills to bears, wolves were quite successful at defending their dens, and even wolf pups 6 to 7 months old chased bears away from wolf rendezvous sites (R. Mclntyre, unpublished data). Two likely instances of wolves in YNP killing grizzly bear cubs have been recorded. One cub was found near an elk carcass and the other near a bison carcass. Necropsy of the cubs, and the circumstances around the carcasses, indicated death from wolves."
Grizzly bears. The grizzly bear population in the GYE has increased dramatically since the 1970s, although the bears are still listed as threatened under provisions of the Endangered Species Act. In 2001 the population was estimated at 354 bears, including 35 sows with cubs at heel (Haroldson and Frey 2001). Fifty-eight wolf–bear interactions have been recorded in YNP. Most interactions occur at wolf kill sites, where control of the carcass is hotly contested; typically, bears prevail in the encounter even though wolves outnumber them.
In one case a bear held 24 wolves at bay. Although fully capable of killing ungulates, especially in spring, grizzly bears now appear to seek out wolf kills and are often successful at driving wolves from carcasses.
Post by grrraaahhh on Oct 28, 2011 15:56:33 GMT -9
Expanding on Table 10.1 (see reply # 2) renowned and pioneering scientist Adolph Murie in his studies of wolves made the following summarized observations about wolf/grizzly bear relations in around the Mt. McKinley area of Alaska:
Both species occupy the same range but are indifferent to each other.
Grizzlies not infrequently discover wolf kills and will displace the wolves and assume ownership.
Carrion displaced wolves will try to harass invasive grizzlies with quick nips (followed by simultaneously retreating jumps) to the rear of the alert bear avoiding the strong forelimbs of the bear.
The meat hungry grizzlies are the gainers at the expense of wolves.
Adolph Murie, The wolves of Mount McKinley (1944); p. 204-205.
Literature material on Eurasian brown bear/wolf relations exist in smaller volume (some of it obtained) and are planned for future forum review, however, outside contributions are welcomed.
Forum members have read accounts of wolf predation of bear cubs (i.e., black, brown, and even polar bear cubs) but research literature also reveals a reversal of tables, that is; the occurrence of bear predation of wolf pups.
In 1989, while conducting wolf research in the northern Yukon, by a sparse boreal forest, Hayes and Baer found evidence that a brown bear excavated a wolf den and killed four wolf pups.
Remember, female grizzlies are smaller than their male counterparts. IMO, a single hungry adult sow (without cubs) would be able to drive off a small number of wolves from a carcass but anything more than that would be tough sledding. Depending on the age of the cubs, a sow grizzly has to be careful in its relations with wolves - the older the cubs; the stronger the bear's position. Coastal adult sow grizzlies are larger than their interior cousins (they are comparable to some interior male bears in weight) and would be a formidable challenge to a larger number of wolves but the threat to the cubs is always present. In both scenarios, it is easier to seek out other food options for the sow and cubs.
On June 10, 1976, aerial helicopter surveillance by researchers Hayes and Mossop (1987) were able to observe a predation event at the entrance of wolf den site where a sow grizzly bear accompanied by her cubs of estimated age 2-3 years. The sow was attempting to dig out a wolf den site which was defended by seven wolves. The presence of the helicopter caused the bear to run with her cubs in tow with the wolves nipping at the retreating bears with the bears periodically stopping to attack the wolves to a distance of 400 meters. On June 23, the same sow accompanied by her cubs waited 5 m outside the entrance of the same wolf's den which was defended by a single wolf. To lessen the chance of disturbance the researchers landed their helicopter 800 m away behind a hillside to observe events with binoculars. At this same time a band of 25 barren-ground caribou approached the den to within 30 m pursued by a dark brown bear. As the caribou and the dark brown bear neared the wolf den both the wolf and sow plus cubs scattered. The wolf later returned to the wolf den, status of the wolf pups were not determined.
Hayes, R.D. and Mossop, D.H. 1987. Interactions of wolves,Canis lupus, and brown bears,Ursus arctos, at a wolf den in the northern Yukon.Can. Field Nat. 101: 603–4.
Hayes, R. D., and A. Baer. 1992. Brown bear, Ursus arctos, preying upon gray wolf, Canis lupus, pups at a wolf den. Canadian Field-Naturalist 106:381–382
Translated from Russian to English via online software:
Two Bears and a Wolf Pack
Author: Nikanorov AP
Describes the collision of two packs of wolves and bears in October 2001 in the central part of the coastal tundra Kronotsky Biosphere Reserve. One of the bears escaped, the second eventually upheld "the right" to follow the same route. Wolves were full and the attack is ultimately acquired (in the opinion of the observer) game character. A survey of experts for the first time in Kamchatka, and the Asian part of Russia as a whole, revealed two significant cases of successful attacks of wolves on brown bears.
For many years, although "discrete" history function Kronotsky reserve, as well as for the whole of Kamchatka, to date, the literature describes only two contacts wolf-bear (Averin, 1948). In one case, at the end of September 1944 observed how large a wolf chasing a small bear on Stolbovoi tundra, catching up on him three times and the animals mated to dybah. In the other - on the trail in the snow near the mouth of one of the tributaries. Tyushovka November 15, 1945 revealed that a pack of about 10 wolves besieged regarding a large bear, who stopped several times and fought back. Traces of blood were observed. In both cases, ultimately remained unclear what these clashes ended, because the information came from amateurs [AK Fedosenko and NL Lebedeva (Fedosenko Lebedeva, 1991)] erroneously attributed directly mentioned observations Y. Averin].
10 and 11 October 2001, we observed a flock of 11-wolves (3 Profit, mothers and pereyarki), which appeared on the flat tundra near Research Hospital, located in the middle reaches. Kronotsky. October 11 there was a clash pack with 2 bears medium size.
Observing the relationship of wolves and bears, even with relatively high numbers of these predators in some areas of permanent cohabitation, in domestic and foreign literature are scarce, which is well illustrated concise material analyzed in individual reports on such relationships (Mech, 1970; Matjushkin 1985; Fedosenko Lebedeva, 1987 and others).
As described below in case of discharge of rare for the reserve, we thought it appropriate to bring, in addition to describing the actual conflict, related information.
Specified area in the summer attractive to wolves, because there is only known in the reserve is flat colony of ground squirrels in which wolves are successfully hunted.
We observed near the hospital from 1 to 4 Wolves 5-8 July. Most active was one adult male, often hunted twice a day and each time was removed from the production in the same direction, presumably to the den, located in the surrounding forest. Presumably 3 other wolves, is no different in size, were pereyarki. Then, from July 16 to August 31, we had a break in the observations.
Wolves again, this time a compact flock of 11 birds seen by us on October 10 at 18 o'clock, 400 meters south-east of the hospital, on a low hill in the marshy tundra. Animals rested, played, ran from hill to hill. In the 20th hour of a few animals trotted headed to the bend of the river Kronotsky (about 500 meters), gradually, followed by "tandem" with a distance of 5-50 m carried away with the rest of the pack. After 30 minutes, all animals gradually returned. Wolves could see this as the nearby area for residues of salmon on the banks of the river after the bear fishings, and for the presence of deer. A few hours before the flocks in the bend of several single grazing deer. Half an hour before the wolves 3 large deer stag left the area and moved to the other side of the tundra. Note that close (0.8-1.5 km) flock to night always had several small herds. Later we found no evidence in the hills of eating food, but before twilight wolves, especially profit, well differ in size showed mostly play behavior. Obviously animals successfully hunted before and were relatively satisfied. Returning at dusk to the hospital from the route, we saw a wolf, trot guides to the old dirt road in the direction of the pack. Several times she howled softly. Perhaps this wolf did reconnaissance in the western part of the tundra, taking advantage of a well-preserved track road.
October 11 at 8 o'clock in the morning twilight dense flock proceeded spirited gallop past the hospital in two columns to the west. Wolves ran at a distance of 25-30 m, all the same distance. Between the columns remained flat distance of about 150 m, near the structure passed in order of 50-60 m Orientation of the likely target facilitate easy cross-breeze. After sunrise, we periodically examined tundra in 10x binoculars. Once again flock recorded in the 10th hour in the western part of the tundra. Part of the pack rested about 1 km from the cordon, and 6 large individuals gradually put forward from the pack on the edge of the forest in slabovognutuyu chain. The goal was two small groups of deer (3 bull and bull with 2 Vazhenkov), who were on the tundra at 300 m from the edge of the forest. In the end, all the deer slowly, then retired small dashes in the center of the tundra away, and returned to the pack beaters. Near the wolves always keep a few ravens and crows, Steller's sea eagle sat down at a distance. By all indications, a flock of resting after a morning hunt successfully when trying to reach now has shown little perseverance. In the center of the tundra reindeer left.
Considering once again flock to the 12th hour, still is 1 km away and 200 m from Erman forest, we found that, in 150 m from the main pack of wolves 4.6 Active Attack 2-bears. At the start of monitoring the distance between the bears were about 60-80 m The first of the animals, the size slightly larger than others, reflecting the attacks 2 - 3 Wolves, has gradually shifted from the edge of the forest in the depth of the array. We followed it within 10-12 min., Before finally left the pursuers, he was out of sight in the thick tall Kamchatka. Moved during this time it is no more than 60-80 m The second bear, at the beginning of the observation, "cool", surrounded by 3 - 4 at the boundary of the tundra wolves and isolated, peripheral edge of a forest of trees, at first tried to leave as open space, clearly trying to "break" to birchwoods. Attempts to move the bears were given very difficult. With the long range part of this vibrant and very dynamic picture could not be traced, but the activity of wolf attacks initially was very high: bears, reflecting the assaults, sometimes almost simultaneously, with 2-3 sides, rose on its hind legs every 20-25 seconds, tossing from side to side. The wolf is clearly time to inflict bites: could clearly discern how any of the wolf jumping on the bear's back at the very moment when the last lunge at the other wolf; attackers bounce bear turned around sharply. At one point, the wolf attacks was clearly seen that the first bear body, slightly bent, stretched out (as it were frantically) along the entire length of the trunk large birch. It is possible that the beast emerged was the intention to climb a tree. Whether he kept his weight (see below) the potential to drevolazaniyu is unclear, and the tree was pryamostvolnym without major branches at the bottom of the barrel. Moreover, wolves have left him no time to change tactics protection and the next moment the bear again did kontrvypad arrayed on wolves. It is noteworthy that with most of the members of the pack continued to be in the same place, and after the first bear disappeared into the forest, the number of attacking the second did not increase (although this occasionally some of the wolves ran from the tundra to the forest, so Bear is the second to the first). Continued to bear on the remaining come on (both were close) not more than three wolves. Sometimes a particular beast slowly ran off in the direction of the pack, then also slowly coming back, or one of the spoof of another wolf pack. After 20 minutes. after the start of observations, it became apparent that the second bear stopped move to the woods. Intensity mounts wolves has gradually decreased, and the bear began to slowly come back, on the treeless space. Over the next 20 minutes attacking basically no more than two animals at the same time, the attackers replaced periodically, the rate of mounts, their dynamism, jumping height gradually fell. In the end, all the wolves left the bear and went to pack. Only occasionally some of them run away from the pack and made several assaults, which reflected the bear, is not getting up on his hind legs, even without otmahivaniya paws, and only turning the head and front of the torso. Even 20 minutes a bear wandering the tundra, clearly something examining, sniffing, then slowly moved on towards the traditional spawning grounds on the River. Kronotsky. At this point, there are several main, well-stuffed bear trails, which traditionally bears cross This area of tundra. According to our long-term observations, including observations of the fall of 2001, usually in the morning, followed by movement across the tundra to the river in the evening - in the opposite direction. Place of rest rooms located no further than 100 meters from the most powerful of the "transition" trail. Bear passed slowly along the trail resting flock. However, only one of the wolves ran up to him, but it 2-3 brief outburst was obviously were only symbolic. 2.3 Wolf stood watching the bear, 3-4 of lying raised their heads. Other resting in shallow depressions and obviously did not have followed the bear, hidden from them a little hilly. So, after an hour from the start of our observations flock to bears almost lost interest.
Before the animal crossed the tundra and disappeared into the floodplain forest, we were able to reduce the viewing distance of about 500 meters and make sure that it was a medium-sized animal weighing approximately 170-200 kg. (Visual estimates based on the author's many years of experience of visual observations, periodic practice of weighing the fallen, or hunted animals and weighing immobilized individuals (the latter - in the framework of the Russian-American program on radio-Kamchatka bears.) In addition, mass estimate is made from a distance, with which we repeatedly previously believed the size of animals observed earlier or later in detail, from close range.) In this regard, we evaluated the ability of these individuals to escape from the wolves in the trees, as minimal. Kamchatka bears generally quickly lose the ability to drevolazaniyu. Although young and small bears demonstrate amazing capacity to transport among steep cliffs, climbing trees facts animals over the age Lonchakov in the reserve has been established. In 5-6 the most striking and detailed episodes, when the reserve people were rescued from the aggressive animals in the trees (or hiding them "just in case"), all bears made no attempt even to rise "for the buck" from the trunk. Perhaps the reason for this anatomical Kamchatka subspecies. So reserve ranger AP Lyzhin informed us that hunting around Zhupanova paragraph in the middle 70s. fall, he fatally shot a medium-sized bear male, weighing less than 200 kg. Beast in agony reached a birch, but after a meter broke and fell to the ground. When cutting the carcass was discovered that all the fingers front paws were "turned out", in other words, when climbing a torn ligament claw phalanges not support the weight of the beast. Conversely, very frightened (person or other, larger animal) young, small specimens in the reserve has never escaped the trees, but only in flight.
Later, during the inspection area, we found staying at a flock of only fragments of the cervical vertebra and femur with fresh, not yet dried food residue krovyu.Vozmozhno part pilfered raptors. Most likely, the rest rooms bones dragged profits. Place of death of the deer we found most likely wolves caught and ate it in a nearby forest.
At the 17th hour on the road past the hospital rushed deer bull with medium sized horns. A minute later we saw 8 adult wolves, standing before the buildings is 200 m All animals were approximately the same size, with the exception of one individual (female?). As in July, we have not allocated among wolves individuals stood out large size. Most of the standing, lying two, 2, grinned at each other, fighting. Then, gradually grouping, wolves trotted light jog back to the forest. Later (until November 19), we have not seen them here. Key gonnye herds of deer were out of the forest, next tundra, no closer than 6-8 km from the hospital.
Thus, at the beginning of the conflict monitoring wolves - we saw the bears likely behavior playful character of the well-fed wolves. This is demonstrated by the fact that not all adult dogs (at least - at the same time) participated in the attack. It is unclear how two adult bears were both close to the herd. According to observations in September-November, this path adults had not moved together. The very movements were rare: only 1-2 bears for daytime. We have not seen on this trail and shared pair of young, semi-mature animals, which, however, with respect to this case, is not excluded. It is also possible that the pair was a female with a very large bear. Some indirect evidence indicates that on Kamchatka, some females with cubs go not only to the third, but in the fourth year, and the size and weight of these adolescents can be quite significant.
The fact that in the end one of the bears continued on the trail, probably due to increased aggressiveness, personal malice and strong excitation. Distinctively aggressive individuals in such a large group, as Kronotskaya (over 700 bears), occasionally observed in different p-tries of the reserve.
In the summer and autumn in the Kronotsky wolves and bears virtually no biotopical disunity, so these two conflicting meeting predators certainly more common than previously might have been expected.
In August 1852, repeatedly dropping off the east coast of Kamchatka (including those on the banks of the now existing reserve) K.fon Dietmar (Dittmar, 1901), found here in the literal form of wildlife: the territory in the space of more than 5 million hectares has been completely uninhabited for over 40 years. Traveler points out the abundance of bears and is almost always seen in the neighborhood with wolves (or, at least, noted fresh wolf tracks). Sometimes it looked like an idyll: walks on the tundra bear, after a few dozen meters jogging running wolf. Thus, the diverse range of relationships of wolves and bears in Kamchatka adjusted centuries.
We did not make a special survey, but the survey a number of experienced hunters in the region with a large and long experience both practical and research tells us that any data on wolf-bear contacts unknown to them. However we have established two such cases. In late May, about 1978 in the estuary. Captain (left tributary. Oblukovina in its upper reaches, middle mountains west of Middle Ridge, Western Kamchatka) from the helicopter hunters AN Zaslavsky and pilot AI Fomin was scared at the carcass bears two large wolf. Circled the area and planting a corpse revealed that the bear was run over a few days ago, about 12 hours. By this time of day in the bright spring sun snow crust heavily destroyed. If "at the top" in the midlands, where traces were predators and victims, present was still relatively strong, in the floodplain of the bear on mahah sank to the ground, "sat on the belly" that wolves and facilitate their task. Wolves deliberately drove Bear "from the top", where the snow was more severe, down to the flood plain. On the trail was visible, sometimes the bear was trying to do lunges to the side (the wolves ran on either side of him). In the floodplain, he rushed to saving the river, but a few tens of meters to bed wolves could wrap it. Floodplain on loose snow wolves on both sides easily caught up and "took" the victim (a struggle almost not visible). Body length of the bear was about 120 cm This was probably Tretiak. Wolves had it much starve. The attempt to oust predator helicopter into the open failed: they hid in a thicket of dense stone pine, spruce branches which at this time is partially exempt from the snow, rectified, making almost impenetrable thickets. At the conclusion of AA Zaslavsky, a bear on the transition may have intercepted a male and female (one wolf was smaller) within the family plot, especially since this area in the 70s was known as traditional "wolf."
In 1999, in the range of 7-12 May, at 12 Hunter VG Immortal with a partner in their own land, in the vicinity of the volcano Asacha (South West Kamchatka) reported harassment by three wolves (one stood out very large size) with medium-sized female with two cubs-Tretyakov (presumably). Terrain - clumps of mountain tundra in the zone of alder, mostly creeping, at that time still largely covered with snow. Height between 500-700 meters above sea level.
Nast was a solid, no bears, nor, especially, wolves from failing, the prosecution was conducted at high speed. Bears almost did not try to defend themselves, but sometimes on the run with a swoop of the Wolves "brushed aside." Wolves "cut off" a teddy bear wrapped and surrounded. The female ran away with the other, not trying to fight off an abandoned, and soon disappeared. Hunters approached by snowmobile, one started filming, the other were selected on the shot. For 400 yards, clearly saw the hunter, two wolf stopped the attack and disappeared over the hill. Attacks continued large male (clearly exceeds the size of the bear, at least, the height at the withers). Animals are often mated to dybah periodically wolf and cub resting, lying to each other a few meters. Clearly be seen that both are very tired (and bear at that time was still visibly scarred.) In the final, finishing off a wolf prey grip the throat. Its almost the end of attacks was interrupted unsuccessful hunter shot and he was gone. In the approach to the place of battle bear already agonized. It was a well-fed sample, male, weighing approximately 50 kg. The next night the place bout and butchering carcasses visited bear (marked on the trail). A few days later, VG Immortal tracked down and shot in the vicinity of a very large full-grown wolf male, is the fact that he had missed before, he believes. By his estimation weight exceeded 60 kg. One of the canines was heavily Stoch. Different beast powerfully built, tall and pretty good fatness. Approximate length of skin (with a tail) was 240-245 cm Said land had always considered the true wolf. It is also the usual spring habitats of bears.
According to hunting specialist AG Kovalenkov in northern Kamchatka Koryak (hunters and herders) believe that the wolf and the bear do not conflict. Cases antagonistic relationship unknown to them. According to the same hunter VP Rebrikova known to him in the middle reaches. Opukvayam (alpine tundra, Redin creeping) 2 years of wolf dens and bears (and should be) in their surroundings never observed, although in the neighboring areas of activity bears common.
The author is grateful for the advice and provided valuable information to hunters AS Valentsevu, PS Vyatkina, AN Zaslavsky, A. Kovalenkov, VV Komarov, PhD NN Gerasimov, hunters VG Immortal, VP Rebrikovu.
Averin Y. 1948. Terrestrial vertebrates Eastern Kamchatka / / Proc. Kronotsky state. Reserve. No. 1. New York: 1-156.
Dietmar K.1901. Travel and stay in Kamchatka Carl von Ditmar in 1851-1855 gg. Part 1. Background Report on the diaries. SPb.: 1-756.
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Individual Variation in Predatory Behavior, Scavenging and Seasonal Prey Availability as Potential Drivers of Coexistence between Wolves and Bears
Abstract: Several large carnivore populations are recovering former ranges, and it is important to understand interspecific interactions between overlapping species. In Scandinavia, recent research has reported that brown bear presence influences gray wolf habitat selection and kill rates. Here, we characterized the temporal use of a common prey resource by sympatric wolves and bears and described individual and seasonal variation in their direct and/or indirect interactions. Most bear–wolf interactions were indirect, via bear scavenging of wolf kills. Bears used >50% of wolf kills, whereas we did not record any wolf visit at bear kills. Adult and subadult bears visited wolf kills, but female bears with cubs of the year, the most vulnerable age class to conspecifics and other predators, did not. Wolf and bear kill rates peaked in early summer, when both targeted neonate moose calves, which coincided with a reduction in bear scavenging rate. Some bears were highly predatory and some did not kill any calf. Individual and age-class variation (in bear predation and scavenging patterns) and seasonality (in bear scavenging patterns and main prey availability of both wolves and bears) could mediate coexistence of these apex predators. Similar processes likely occur in other ecosystems with varying carnivore assemblages.