"...The mean age of black bears captured in our study area was 2.7 years ± 0.5 (n = 17) for males, and 4.2 years ± 0.8 (n = 18) for females, and 3.5 years ± 0.5 (n = 35) overall..."
"...Body mass of bears trapped in our study area in May–August 2005–2007 averaged 95.7 kg ± 9.4 (n = 12, range = 54–159) for adult (>1 year) males and 67.6 kg ± 3.8 (n = 15, range = 45–100) for adult (>1 year) females..."
Hepatic Metabolomic Investigation of the North American Black Bear (Ursus americanus) Using 1 H-NMR Spectroscopy J.N. Niemuth1,2,* & M.K. Stoskopf1,2 1 Fisheries, Wildlife and Conservation Biology Program, North Carolina State University, 3120 Jordan Hall, Raleigh, NC 27695 USA. 2 Environmental Medicine Consortium, Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, North Carolina State University, 1060 William Moore Drive, Raleigh, NC 27607 USA. * Corresponding author: College of Veterinary Medicine, North Carolina State University, 1060 William Moore Drive, Raleigh, NC 27607 USA; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. Keywords Metabolomics; North American black bear; Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy; NMR; Ursus americanus. Abstract The growing field of metabolomics examines the end products of metabolism, metabolites, to determine physiological processes at a cellular level. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy affords advantages such as noninvasive sample collection, minimal or no sample preparation, and conservation of samples. The objectives of this study were to determine the feasibility of NMR-based metabolomics as a screening tool for evaluating changes in North American black bear (Ursus americanus) metabolism utilizing samples from hunter-killed specimens and to evaluate baseline metabolic profiles for free-ranging black bear. Hepatic samples were collected from 14 legally, hunter-killed black bears. The samples were frozen, homogenized, and extracted. 1 H-NMR spectra were collected and analyzed. Over 30 metabolites were identified, including those involved with protein, lipid, and carbohydrate metabolism. Principal components analysis demonstrated a separation among the bears by general age groups, based on differences in several energy and amino acid biomarkers, as well as lactate. This difference may be due to variation in growth and body composition with age. Samples from hunter-killed bears were suitable for NMR-based metabolomics suggesting the use of these techniques is a practical approach for identifying components of black bear metabolism.
Table 1: Signalment and approximate time to sampling for liver samples from 12 legally, hunter-killed black bears in North Carolina, USA